Skin graft is the treatment used for burn patients; Skin is removed from one area of the body and Transplanted to another.
They are two types of Skin Grafting
1) Split-Thickness Grafts : In which just few Layers of outer skin are transplanted.
2) Full-Thickness Grafts : Which involve all of the dermis.
During a skin graft, with the help of dermatone(Skin cutter) removes the skin from an area. Once removed, the graft is placed on the area where the skin is removed with the help of few stitches.
Micro surgery and Plastic surgery are the two types of surgeries are performed for Hand surgery. Micro surgery is a sub- speciality performed with the aid of a microscope on structures that are barely visible to the naked eye. The Sub – speciality mainly deals with “Replantations.
Microsurgery (for finger deformities):
Replantation of a single finger or multiple fingers can be done through microsurgery. Even if multiple finger amputation has been done, one or more fingers can be replanted in a postion that will allow functioning of the hand.
Reconstructive Surgery (for tumors, nerve compression and arthritis:
Reconstructive hand surgery alleviates pain and helps correct deformities caused by tumors, nerve compression and arthritis.
Reconstruction of painful arthritic deformities is performed routinely and includes tendon transfer, muscle release and joint displacement fusion.
Microvascular Surgery is technically demanding and time consuming, where Operations are done using an operating Microscope to cut and join tiny blood vessels and nerves. Microvascular surgery is used to replantation of amputated body parts like fingers / hands/ limbs etc., cancer reconstruction using micro Vascular tissue transfer, immediate reconstruction of major limb injuries with soft tissue loss, micro vascular toe to hand transfer to reconstruct missing fingers/ thumbs, genital (penis) reconstruction due to loss because of trauma or cancer, repair of Vascular injuries and healing of diabetic foot ulcers by vascular bypass.
TENDON REPAIR :
The goal of tendon repair is to restore the normal function of joints or their surrounding tissues. The shoulder , elbow, knee and ankle joints are the most commonly affected by tendon injuries.
When the tendon has been identified, the surgeon sutures the damaged or torn ends of the tendon together . If the tendon has been severely injuried, a tendon graft may be required. In this procedure a piece of tendon is taken from the foot or the other part of the body and used to repair the damaged tendon. If required, tendons are reattached to the surrounding connective tissue. The surgeon inspects the area for injuries to nerves and blood vessels and closes the incision.
NERVE INJURY :
A nerve injury can result in a problem with a muscle or in a loss of sensation. In some people, it can causes pain.
They are different types of surgery that may be recommended they are 1) Nerve Repair 2) Nerve Graft 3) Nerve transfer or neurolysis.
For regenerating nerve fibers need the guidance of the nerve for direction to the muscle or sensory unit. If the nerve has been cut, a nerve repair is used to sew the two ends of a nerve together. This is usually possible when the nerve has been cut sharply. In the case of more extensive damage, it may not be possible to sew the two ends of the nerve directly together once the damaged nerve has been trimmed away.
In this cases . A small piece of donar nerve is used to fill the gap between the two nerves ends. The donar nerve is taken from other areas of the body using small, non critical, sensory nerves.
A neurolysis refers to the removal of scar from the nerve and may be used if scar tissue is blocking the nerve from regenerating.
Women consider breast augmentation for many different reasons like appearance, size and contour of Women’s breasts.
Breast augmentation is performed with implants that can be placed under a chest muscle or over a chest muscle. The incision can be placed in the axilla, areola, or lower breast fold. In general, all breast augmentations are minimally invasive procedures. For augmentations in which the incision is made in the armpit, an endoscope may be used during the procedure.
Breast Reduction surgery is often used in women with large, heavy breasts who experience significant discomfort including neck pain, back pain and numbness or weakness due to the weight of the breasts. During this procedure, excess skin, fat and breast tissue are removed.
After surgery breast reduction can cause a change in breast sensationas well as the inability to breastfeed.
Liposuction is a cosmetic surgery procedure that can help sculpt the body by removing unwanted fat from specific body areas. This procedure is also known as liposculpture or suction- assisted lipectomy. It is frequently combines with an abdominoplasty procedure, ot Tommy Tuck which helps to remove the excess skin and tissue for a complete body sculpting procedure.
The treatment can be performedon any area of the body buttocks, hips, thighs, abdomen, chin, upper arms, breasts or knee. Liposuction is not an alternative to dieting and exercise and may not be suitable for candidates waiting to loss excess weight.
Rhinoplastry, commonly known as a nose job, is plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form. There are many important factors that must be considered prior to undergoing rhinoplasty, including skin type and age.
Mostly this rhinoplasties on patients until they have fully grown which, in most cases, occurs around the age of fifteen or sixteen.
Reconstructive surgery is a procedure wherein injuried areas or defects are corrected by using flaps of tissue, skin, boneor metalwork, along with underlying blood vessels or muscle to rebuild the damaged tissues. Reconstructive surgeries on the upper and lower limb are performed to improve the structural, functional and cosmetic outcome of injuried limbs. The Lower limb includes the hip, thigh, leg and foot .
Reconstruction of these structures can avoid amputation or shortening of limbs, and prevents many complex defects that result from injuries.
Head and neck surgery which involves removal of tumors from anywhere in the head and neck region. This includes the tongue, the voice box, the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, salivary glands including the submandibular and parotid glands, tumors of the ear, tumors that involve the eye, and they work in coordination with neurosurgeons to remove tumors that involve the brain or the base of the skull.
Facial plastic surgery is a component of otolaryngology that can be divided into two categories they are
1) Reconstructive and 2) Cosmetic.
RECONSTRUCTIVE PLASTIC SURGERY: It is performed for the patients with conditions that may be present from birth, such as birthmarks on the face, cleft lip and palate, protruding ears and a crooked smile, accidents, trauma, burns or previous surgery are also corrected with this type of surgery. Some reconstructive procedures are required to treat existing diseases like skin cancer.
COSMETIC FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY: It is Performed to enhance visual appearance of the facial structures and features. Common procedures include facelifts, eyelifts, rhinoplasty, chin and cheek implants, liposuction and procedures to correct facial wrinkles.
Reconstructive Urology uses the tissue expansion, the contemporary literature was reviewed , together with our own tissue expansion. The tissue expansion has ben applied in cases of bladder augmentation, ureteral elongation, and dilation of the renal pelvis, Producing native tissue for the reconstruction of defects or strictures of the upper ureter. Tissue expansion is a well- accepted technique that can amplify the armamentarium of reconstructive urologists for the mangement of defects along the urinary tract.
Bulbar Urethral strictures a nontubularized Onlay patch of buccal mucosa was used for urethral reconstruction.
Maxillofacial surgery involves treatment of the bony and soft tissue structure of the face. This involve the Mandible (Lower Jaw), Maxilla (Upper Jaw), Nose and internal nasal structures, Zygoma (cheek bones), Orbits and Orbital floor (bones about the eyes), Frontal bones Sinuses (forehead). Soft tissue structures involve the Eyelids, Lips, Tongue and facial skin. Maxillofacial surgery is usually considered as “ reconstructive surgery”.
Reconstructive maxillofacial surgery can be performed within days of the primary accident, primary surgery. In some cases, secondary surgery may need to be performed either months or even years after the primary surgery in order to try to improve , change or alter the result which have occurred as a result of healing.